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「上海成考网」 高中所有的化学方程式。

2020-05-15阅读(

「上海成考网」 高中所有的化学方程式。

[高中所有的化学方程式。]的其他答案:

高中所有化学方程式

非金属单质(F2,Cl2,O2,S,N2,P,C,Si)?

1,氧化性:?

F2+H2===2HF?

F2+Xe(过量)===XeF2?

2F2(过量)+Xe===XeF4?

nF2+2M===2MFn(表示大部分金属)?

2F2+2H2O===4HF+O2?

2F2+2NaOH===2NaF+OF2+H2O?

F2+2NaCl===2NaF+Cl2?

F2+2NaBr===2NaF+Br2?

F2+2NaI===2NaF+I2?

F2+Cl2(等体积)===2ClF?

3F2(过量)+Cl2===2ClF3?

7F2(过量)+I2===2IF7?

Cl2+H2===2HCl?

3Cl2+2P===2PCl3?

Cl2+PCl3===PCl5?

Cl2+2Na===2NaCl?

3Cl2+2Fe===2FeCl3?

Cl2+2FeCl2===2FeCl3?

Cl2+Cu===CuCl2?

2Cl2+2NaBr===2NaCl+Br2?

Cl2+2NaI===2NaCl+I2?

5Cl2+I2+6H2O===2HIO3+10HCl?

Cl2+Na2S===2NaCl+S?

Cl2+H2S===2HCl+S?

Cl2+SO2+2H2O===H2SO4+2HCl?

Cl2+H2O2===2HCl+O2?

2O2+3Fe===Fe3O4?

O2+K===KO2?

S+H2===H2S?

2S+C===CS2?

S+Fe===FeS?

S+2Cu===Cu2S?

3S+2Al===Al2S3?

S+Zn===ZnS?

N2+3H2===2NH3?

N2+3Mg===Mg3N2?

N2+3Ca===Ca3N2?

N2+3Ba===Ba3N2?

N2+6Na===2Na3N?

N2+6K===2K3N?

N2+6Rb===2Rb3N?

P2+6H2===4PH3?

P+3Na===Na3P?

2P+3Zn===Zn3P2

2.还原性?

S+O2===SO2?

S+O2===SO2?

S+6HNO3(浓)===H2SO4+6NO2+2H2O?

3S+4HNO3(稀)===3SO2+4NO+2H2O?

N2+O2===2NO?

4P+5O2===P4O10(常写成P2O5)?

2P+3X2===2PX3(X表示F2,Cl2,Br2)?

PX3+X2===PX5?

P4+20HNO3(浓)===4H3PO4+20NO2+4H2O?

C+2F2===CF4?

C+2Cl2===CCl4?

2C+O2(少量)===2CO?

C+O2(足量)===CO2?

C+CO2===2CO?

C+H2O===CO+H2(生成水煤气)?

2C+SiO2===Si+2CO(制得粗硅)?

Si(粗)+2Cl===SiCl4?

(SiCl4+2H2===Si(纯)+4HCl)?

Si(粉)+O2===SiO2?

Si+C===SiC(金刚砂)?

Si+2NaOH+H2O===Na2SiO3+2H2?

3,(碱中)歧化?

Cl2+H2O===HCl+HClO?

(加酸抑制歧化,加碱或光照促进歧化)?

Cl2+2NaOH===NaCl+NaClO+H2O?

2Cl2+2Ca(OH)2===CaCl2+Ca(ClO)2+2H2O?

3Cl2+6KOH(热,浓)===5KCl+KClO3+3H2O?

3S+6NaOH===2Na2S+Na2SO3+3H2O?

4P+3KOH(浓)+3H2O===PH3+3KH2PO2?

11P+15CuSO4+24H2O===5Cu3P+6H3PO4+15H2SO4?

3C+CaO===CaC2+CO?

3C+SiO2===SiC+2CO

二,金属单质(Na,Mg,Al,Fe)的还原性?

2Na+H2===2NaH?

4Na+O2===2Na2O?

2Na2O+O2===2Na2O2?

2Na+O2===Na2O2?

2Na+S===Na2S(爆炸)?

2Na+2H2O===2NaOH+H2?

2Na+2NH3===2NaNH2+H2

4Na+TiCl4(熔融)===4NaCl+Ti?

Mg+Cl2===MgCl2?

Mg+Br2===MgBr2?

2Mg+O2===2MgO?

Mg+S===MgS?

Mg+2H2O===Mg(OH)2+H2

2Mg+TiCl4(熔融)===Ti+2MgCl2?

Mg+2RbCl===MgCl2+2Rb?

2Mg+CO2===2MgO+C?

2Mg+SiO2===2MgO+Si?

Mg+H2S===MgS+H2?

Mg+H2SO4===MgSO4+H2?

2Al+3Cl2===2AlCl3?

4Al+3O2===2Al2O3(钝化)?

4Al(Hg)+3O2+2xH2O===2(Al2O3.xH2O)+4Hg?

4Al+3MnO2===2Al2O3+3Mn?

2Al+Cr2O3===Al2O3+2Cr?

2Al+Fe2O3===Al2O3+2Fe?

2Al+3FeO===Al2O3+3Fe?

2Al+6HCl===2AlCl3+3H2?

2Al+3H2SO4===Al2(SO4)3+3H2?

2Al+6H2SO4(浓)===Al2(SO4)3+3SO2+6H2O?

(Al,Fe在冷,浓的H2SO4,HNO3中钝化)?

Al+4HNO(稀)===Al(NO3)3+NO+2H2O?

2Al+2NaOH+2H2O===2NaAlO2+3H2?

2Fe+3Br2===2FeBr3?

Fe+I2===FeI2?

Fe+S===FeS?

3Fe+4H2O(g)===Fe3O4+4H2?

Fe+2HCl===FeCl2+H2?

Fe+CuCl2===FeCl2+Cu?

Fe+SnCl4===FeCl2+SnCl2?

(铁在酸性环境下,不能把四氯化锡完全?

还原为单质锡Fe+SnCl2==FeCl2+Sn)?

三,非金属氢化物(HF,HCl,H2O,H2S,NH3)?

1,还原性:?

4HCl(浓)+MnO2===MnCl2+Cl2+2H2O?

4HCl(g)+O2===2Cl2+2H2O?

16HCl+2KMnO4===2KCl+2MnCl2+5Cl2+8H2O?

14HCl+K2Cr2O7===2KCl+2CrCl3+3Cl2+7H2O?

2H2O+2F2===4HF+O2?

2H2S+3O2(足量)===2SO2+2H2O?

2H2S+O2(少量)===2S+2H2O?

2H2S+SO2===3S+2H2O?

H2S+H2SO4(浓)===S+SO2+2H2O?

3H2S+2HNO(稀)===3S+2NO+4H2O?

5H2S+2KMnO4+3H2SO4===2MnSO4+K2SO4+5S+8H2O?

3H2S+K2Cr2O7+4H2SO4===Cr2(SO4)3+K2SO4+3S+7H2O?

H2S+4Na2O2+2H2O===Na2SO4+6NaOH?

2NH3+3CuO===3Cu+N2+3H2O?

2NH3+3Cl2===N2+6HCl?

8NH3+3Cl2===N2+6NH4Cl?

4NH3+3O2(纯氧)===2N2+6H2O?

4NH3+5O2===4NO+6H2O?

4NH3+6NO===5N2+6HO(用氨清除NO)?

NaH+H2O===NaOH+H2?

4NaH+TiCl4===Ti+4NaCl+2H2?

CaH2+2H2O===Ca(OH)2+2H2?

2,酸性:?

4HF+SiO2===SiF4+2H2O?

(此反应广泛应用于测定矿样或钢样中SiO2的含量)?

2HF+CaCl2===CaF2+2HCl?

H2S+Fe===FeS+H2?

H2S+CuCl2===CuS+2HCl?

H2S+2AgNO3===Ag2S+2HNO3?

H2S+HgCl2===HgS+2HCl?

H2S+Pb(NO3)2===PbS+2HNO3?

H2S+FeCl2===?

2NH3+2Na==2NaNH2+H2?

(NaNH2+H2O===NaOH+NH3)?

3,碱性:?

NH3+HCl===NH4Cl?

NH3+HNO3===NH4NO3?

2NH3+H2SO4===(NH4)2SO4?

NH3+NaCl+H2O+CO2===NaHCO3+NH4Cl?

(此反应用于工业制备小苏打,苏打)?

4,不稳定性:?

2HF===H2+F2?

2HCl===H2+Cl2?

2H2O===2H2+O2?

2H2O2===2H2O+O2?

H2S===H2+S?

2NH3===N2+3H2?

四,非金属氧化物?

低价态的还原性:?

2SO2+O2===2SO3?

2SO2+O2+2H2O===2H2SO4?

(这是SO2在大气中缓慢发生的环境化学反应)?

SO2+Cl2+2H2O===H2SO4+2HCl?

SO2+Br2+2H2O===H2SO4+2HBr?

SO2+I2+2H2O===H2SO4+2HI?

SO2+NO2===SO3+NO?

2NO+O2===2NO2?

NO+NO2+2NaOH===2NaNO2?

(用于制硝酸工业中吸收尾气中的NO和NO2)?

2CO+O2===2CO2?

CO+CuO===Cu+CO2?

3CO+Fe2O3===2Fe+3CO2?

CO+H2O===CO2+H2?

氧化性:?

SO2+2H2S===3S+2H2O?

SO3+2KI===K2SO3+I2?

NO2+2KI+H2O===NO+I2+2KOH?

(不能用淀粉KI溶液鉴别溴蒸气和NO2)?

4NO2+H2S===4NO+SO3+H2O?

2NO2+Cu===4CuO+N2?

CO2+2Mg===2MgO+C?

(CO2不能用于扑灭由Mg,Ca,Ba,Na,K等燃烧的火灾)?

SiO2+2H2===Si+2H2O?

SiO2+2Mg===2MgO+Si?

3,与水的作用:?

SO2+H2O===H2SO3?

SO3+H2O===H2SO4?

3NO2+H2O===2HNO3+NO?

N2O5+H2O===2HNO3?

P2O5+H2O===2HPO3?

P2O5+3H2O===2H3PO4?

(P2O5极易吸水,可作气体干燥剂)

P2O5+3H2SO4(浓)===2H3PO4+3SO3?

CO2+H2O===H2CO3?

与碱性物质的作用:?

SO2+2NH3+H2O===(NH4)2SO3?

SO2+(NH4)2SO3+H2O===2NH4HSO3?

(这是硫酸厂回收SO2的反应.先用氨水吸收SO2,?

再用H2SO4处理:2NH4HSO3+H2SO4===(NH4)2SO4+2H2O+2SO2?

生成的硫酸铵作化肥,SO2循环作原料气)?

SO2+Ca(OH)2===CaSO3+H2O?

(不能用澄清石灰水鉴别SO2和CO2.可用品红鉴别)?

SO3+MgO===MgSO4?

SO3+Ca(OH)2===CaSO4+H2O?

CO2+2NaOH(过量)===Na2CO3+H2O?

CO2(过量)+NaOH===NaHCO3?

CO2+Ca(OH)2(过量)===CaCO3+H2O?

2CO2(过量)+Ca(OH)2===Ca(HCO3)2?

CO2+2NaAlO2+3H2O===2Al(OH)3+Na2CO3?

CO2+C6H5ONa+H2O===C6H5OH+NaHCO3?

SiO2+CaO===CaSiO3?

SiO2+2NaOH===Na2SiO3+H2O?

(常温下强碱缓慢腐蚀玻璃)?

SiO2+Na2CO3===Na2SiO3+CO2?

SiO2+CaCO3===CaSiO3+CO2?

五,金属氧化物?

1,低价态的还原性:?

6FeO+O2===2Fe3O4?

FeO+4HNO3===Fe(NO3)3+NO2+2H2O?

2,氧化性:?

Na2O2+2Na===2Na2O?

(此反应用于制备Na2O)?

MgO,Al2O3几乎没有氧化性,很难被还原为Mg,Al.?

一般通过电解制Mg和Al.?

Fe2O3+3H2===2Fe+3H2O(制还原铁粉)?

Fe3O4+4H2===3Fe+4H2O?

3,与水的作用:?

Na2O+H2O===2NaOH?

2Na2O2+2H2O===4NaOH+O2?

(此反应分两步:Na2O2+2H2O===2NaOH+H2O2;?

2H2O2===2H2O+O2.H2O2的制备可利用类似的反应:?

BaO2+H2SO4(稀)===BaSO4+H2O2)?

MgO+H2O===Mg(OH)2(缓慢反应)?

4,与酸性物质的作用:?

Na2O+SO3===Na2SO4?

Na2O+CO2===Na2CO3?

Na2O+2HCl===2NaCl+H2O?

2Na2O2+2CO2===2Na2CO3+O2?

Na2O2+H2SO4(冷,稀)===Na2SO4+H2O2?

MgO+SO3===MgSO4?

MgO+H2SO4===MgSO4+H2O?

Al2O3+3H2SO4===Al2(SO4)3+3H2O?

(Al2O3是两性氧化物:?

Al2O3+2NaOH===2NaAlO2+H2O)?

FeO+2HCl===FeCl2+3H2O?

Fe2O3+6HCl===2FeCl3+3H2O?

Fe2O3+3H2S(g)===Fe2S3+3H2O?

Fe3O4+8HCl===FeCl2+2FeCl3+4H2O?

六,含氧酸?

1,氧化性:?

4HClO3+3H2S===3H2SO4+4HCl?

HClO3+HI===HIO3+HCl?

3HClO+HI===HIO3+3HCl?

HClO+H2SO3===H2SO4+HCl?

HClO+H2O2===HCl+H2O+O2?

(氧化性:HClO>HClO2>HClO3>HClO4,?

但浓,热的HClO4氧化性很强)?

2H2SO4(浓)+C===CO2+2SO2+2H2O?

2H2SO4(浓)+S===3SO2+2H2O?

H2SO4+Fe(Al)室温下钝化?

6H2SO4(浓)+2Fe===Fe2(SO4)3+3SO2+6H2O?

2H2SO4(浓)+Cu===CuSO4+SO2+2H2O?

H2SO4(浓)+2HBr===SO2+Br2+2H2O?

H2SO4(浓)+2HI===SO2+I2+2H2O?

H2SO4(稀)+Fe===FeSO4+H2?

2H2SO3+2H2S===3S+2H2O?

4HNO3(浓)+C===CO2+4NO2+2H2O?

6HNO3(浓)+S===H2SO4+6NO2+2H2O?

5HNO3(浓)+P===H3PO4+5NO2+H2O?

6HNO3+Fe===Fe(NO3)3+3NO2+3H2O?

4HNO3+Fe===Fe(NO3)3+NO+2H2O?

30HNO3+8Fe===8Fe(NO3)3+3N2O+15H2O?

36HNO3+10Fe===10Fe(NO3)3+3N2+18H2O?

30HNO3+8Fe===8Fe(NO3)3+3NH4NO3+9H2O?

2,还原性:?

H2SO3+X2+H2O===H2SO4+2HX?

(X表示Cl2,Br2,I2)?

2H2SO3+O2===2H2SO4?

H2SO3+H2O2===H2SO4+H2O?

5H2SO3+2KMnO4===2MnSO4+K2SO4+2H2SO4+3H2O?

H2SO3+2FeCl3+H2O===H2SO4+2FeCl2+2HCl?

3,酸性:?

H2SO4(浓)+CaF2===CaSO4+2HF?

H2SO4(浓)+NaCl===NaHSO4+HCl?

H2SO4(浓)+2NaCl===Na2SO4+2HCl?

H2SO4(浓)+NaNO3===NaHSO4+HNO3?

3H2SO4(浓)+Ca3(PO4)2===3CaSO4+2H3PO4?

2H2SO4(浓)+Ca3(PO4)2===2CaSO4+Ca(H2PO4)2?

3HNO3+Ag3PO4===H3PO4+3AgNO3?

2HNO3+CaCO3===Ca(NO3)2+H2O+CO2?

(用HNO3和浓H2SO4不能制备H2S,HI,HBr,(SO2)?

等还原性气体)?

4H3PO4+Ca3(PO4)2===3Ca(H2PO4)2(重钙)?

H3PO4(浓)+NaBr===NaH2PO4+HBr?

H3PO4(浓)+NaI===NaH2PO4+HI?

4,不稳定性:?

2HClO===2HCl+O2?

4HNO3===4NO2+O2+2H2O?

H2SO3===H2O+SO2?

H2CO3===H2O+CO2?

H4SiO4===H2SiO3+H2O?

七,碱?

低价态的还原性:?

4Fe(OH)2+O2+2H2O===4Fe(OH)3?

与酸性物质的作用:?

2NaOH+SO2(少量)===Na2SO3+H2O?

NaOH+SO2(足量)===NaHSO3?

2NaOH+SiO2===NaSiO3+H2O?

2NaOH+Al2O3===2NaAlO2+H2O?

2NaOH+Cl2===NaCl+NaClO+H2O?

NaOH+HCl===NaCl+H2O?

NaOH+H2S(足量)===NaHS+H2O?

2NaOH+H2S(少量)===Na2S+2H2O?

3NaOH+AlCl3===Al(OH)3+3NaCl?

NaOH+Al(OH)3===NaAlO2+2H2O?

(AlCl3和Al(OH)3哪个酸性强?)?

NaOH+NH4Cl===NaCl+NH3+H2O?

Mg(OH)2+2NH4Cl===MgCl2+2NH3.H2O?

Al(OH)3+NH4Cl不溶解?

3,不稳定性:?

Mg(OH)2===MgO+H2O?

2Al(OH)3===Al2O3+3H2O?

2Fe(OH)3===Fe2O3+3H2O?

Cu(OH)2===CuO+H2O?

八,盐?

1,氧化性:?

2FeCl3+Fe===3FeCl2?

2FeCl3+Cu===2FeCl2+CuCl2?

(用于雕刻铜线路版)?

2FeCl3+Zn===2FeCl2+ZnCl2?

FeCl3+Ag===FeCl2+AgC?

Fe2(SO4)3+2Ag===FeSO4+Ag2SO4(较难反应)?

Fe(NO3)3+Ag不反应?

2FeCl3+H2S===2FeCl2+2HCl+S?

2FeCl3+2KI===2FeCl2+2KCl+I2?

FeCl2+Mg===Fe+MgCl2?

2,还原性:?

2FeCl2+Cl2===2FeCl3?

3Na2S+8HNO3(稀)===6NaNO3+2NO+3S+4H2O?

3Na2SO3+2HNO3(稀)===3Na2SO4+2NO+H2O?

2Na2SO3+O2===2Na2SO4?

3,与碱性物质的作用:?

MgCl2+2NH3.H2O===Mg(OH)2+NH4Cl?

AlCl3+3NH3.H2O===Al(OH)3+3NH4Cl?

FeCl3+3NH3.H2O===Fe(OH)3+3NH4Cl?

4,与酸性物质的作用:?

Na3PO4+HCl===Na2HPO4+NaCl?

Na2HPO4+HCl===NaH2PO4+NaCl?

NaH2PO4+HCl===H3PO4+NaCl?

Na2CO3+HCl===NaHCO3+NaCl?

NaHCO3+HCl===NaCl+H2O+CO2?

3Na2CO3+2AlCl3+3H2O===2Al(OH)3+3CO2+6NaCl?

3Na2CO3+2FeCl3+3H2O===2Fe(OH)3+3CO2+6NaCl?

3NaHCO3+AlCl3===Al(OH)3+3CO2?

3NaHCO3+FeCl3===Fe(OH)3+3CO2?

3Na2S+Al2(SO4)3+6H2O===2Al(OH)3+3H2S?

3NaAlO2+AlCl3+6H2O===4Al(OH)3?

5,不稳定性:?

Na2S2O3+H2SO4===Na2SO4+S+SO2+H2O?

NH4Cl===NH3+HCl?

NH4HCO3===NH3+H2O+CO2?

2KNO3===2KNO2+O2?

2Cu(NO3)3===2CuO+4NO2+O2?

2KMnO4===K2MnO4+MnO2+O2?

2KClO3===2KCl+3O2?

2NaHCO3===Na2CO3+H2O+CO2?

Ca(HCO3)2===CaCO3+H2O+CO2?

CaCO3===CaO+CO2?

MgCO3===MgO+CO2

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